- Technical Assessment
- Recognition Features
- Technical Assessment and Specifications
- Recognition Features
- Technical Assessment and Specifications
- Recognition Features
- Technical Assessment and Specifications
- Recognition Features
Appendix: Documented Airframes and Serials
The Mohajer family encompasses a range of tactical surveillance UAVs, and are among the most well known and mature Iranian designs. Developed during the height of the Iran-Iraq war by the Qods Aviation Industry Company, they continue to be used by various branches of the Iranian military. Though not as widespread in foreign service as the Ababil, they have increasingly been seen over Iraq and Syria.
The Mohajer's name is often translated as immigrant or emmigrant, but is likely intended to specifically invoke the Arabic muhajirun and muhajir, which – respectively – refer to Mohammed's original 'emmigration' to Mecca, and those that have made the pilgrimage since.
Fielded under wartime pressures, the Mohajer-1 was a relatively unsophisticated design. Although it had only a minor impact on the overall course of the Iran-Iraq War, the tactical experience helped lay the institutional foundations for Iran's development and use of unmanned aircraft over the following decades.
The Mohajer-1 was developed following the IRGC's first forays into unmanned reconnaissance in the early-1980s. By 1985, the Qods Industries was formed as a wing of the IRGC's self-sufficiency department and tasked with supplying the nascent Raad Brigade. The M1 was developed sometime that same year.
An impediment to assessing the M1 is the lack of documentation. Much of the imagery purporting to show wartime M1s are from “Mohajer”, a movie released in 1990. 1 2
However, given the government's role in making war movies, it is a reasonable assumption that the portrayal is fairly accurate.
Physically, the Mohajer-1 is characterized by a narrow cylindrical fuselage, twin-boom tails, and straight wings high and to the rear of the fuselage. It is similar in size to the RQ-7. For flight control, the M1 is fitted with an elevator on the horizontal stabilizer to control pitch, rudders on the vertical stabilizers to control yaw, and ailerons on the wings to control roll.
A tricycle landing gear is employed for launch and recovery. A parachute can also be used for recovery.
For surveillance, the M1 is fitted with a single oblique camera in the nose. Based on other Iranian UAVs from this period, it is likely that this was a still camera, whose film was processed after recovery. One source indicates that it could transfer real-time imagery, though this is questionable. 3
The Mohajer-1 could also be armed and the 1990 movie shows it fitted with 3-round RPG launchers under each wing.
The M1 is controlled via hobby-class radio-control (under 100 mhz). 4
During the Iran-Iraq War, the IRGC's Raad Brigade operated an unknown number over the southern front. Although the they first used UAVs during Operation Kheibar (Feb/March 1984), and Badr (March 1985), the Mohajer in particular is first associated with Operation Valfajr-8 (Feb 1986), and Karbala-5 (Jan/Feb 1987). 5
They were used to prepare for these offensives by photographing Iraqi positions. 6
They were also reportedly used for artillery correction, but it is unclear if this took place in real time, or were used for assessment after the fact.
In the 1990 movie, two teams of personnel are shown: a rear-area launch section, and a forward control section. The need to forward deploy the operators was the result of the radio-control, which limited signal power and precluded data transfer. This, in turn, meant that the M1 could only be used over the front line, and lacked the ability to reconnoiter in depth.
There are reports of Iraqi forces jamming Iranian UAVs by using their HF/VHF/UHF radios, which would have operated in a similar frequency. 7
There are no reports of how effective the M1's armament was. However, given the manual line of sight control, it is unlikely to have been too accurate. This is one area where the movie takes artistic license, purporting to show real time targeting via the on-board camera. In addition, some report that this armament was tested as an anti-shipping weapon in the Gulf. 8
|Spotting artillery impacts during Karbala-5 (UAS Yearbook)|
The Mojajer-2 is representative of the intermediary generation of Iranian UAVs developed during the 90s. In this regard it is largely equivalenent to the Ababil-2, both in generation and in capabilities (e.g. MTOW, endurance). However, unlike the Ababil, the M2 is still routinely used for ISR. Although its capabilities are downright modest compared to the current generation designs, updates promise to keep the M2 relevant.
|NEZAJA M2 during Mohammed Rasoolallah Exercises, December 2014 (Jam-e Jam)|
|1996 parade (Getty)|
The Mohajer-2 was developed prior to 1996, when it was documented on parade in Tehran. Then, in 1999, the Qods company announced that they would host a flight demonstration alongside the Mohajer 3 and 4 (though there is no record of said demonstration). 9
The M2 was next documented during the 2005 Kish Airshow. 10
Since then, the M2 and its variants have been documented regularly.
As of the mid-2000s, 253 Mohajers had been produced. Although it is impossible to say how many of these were M2s, it is a reasonable assumption that they comprised the bulk of this number.
In 11/2014, a new generation was unveiled at that year's Kish Airshow, boasting greatly improved performance.
Physically, the Mohajer-2's airframe is an evolution of the Mohajer-1 design. It is characterized by the same cylindrical fuselage, twin-boom tails, and straight wings. Its flight controls are the same, including an elevator on the horizontal stabilizer, rudders on the vertical stabilizers, and ailerons on the wings. Subtle variations in M2s, such as the engine nascalles, indicate slight changes in manufacturing over time.
The use of skids, rather than the M1's tricycle gear, means that the M2 is dependent on pneumatic or rocket assisted launch (usually the former). Recovery is by parachute or conventional landing.
The Mohajer-2 is powered by the 26 hp WAE-342 twin-cylinder piston engine fitted with a pusher prop, which is also used on Iran's AB2 and Saeqeh. However, a handful of examples have atypical exhaust systems
, possibly explaining the discontinuity between the 342's known power, and the 25 hp consistently claimed on M2 brochures. Official advertisements claim an operational range of 50 km (100 km ferry range), and an endurance of 1.5 hours.
The M2 is fitted with two stub antenna, one on either wing. These support the higher frequency datalinks that allow for real-time control (under 10 ghz).Like the Ababil family, the lack of OTOH control is unlikely to be a significant problem given its short range. Although exact details are scant, export brochures indicate that it is fitted with control software that allows the Mohajer to be flown in one of three modes: manual, semi-automatic, and automatic.
- Manual: The operator controls all aspects of UAV flight by using the real-time feed from the onboard cameras. This mode relies on high and low bandwidth communication between the UAV and GCS.
- Semi-automatic: The operator determines the UAV's flight path, but does not control the flight itself. This mode relies on the lower bandwidth control and telemetry channels, which have a longer range than the higher frequency channels used for imagery downlinks.
- Automatic: The UAV follows a preset flight path and executes commands using GPS and INS-cued waypoints. This mode does not require any uplink/downlink between the UAV and the GCS.
|NEZAJA display, 2009 (Unknown)|
Forward-facing and gimbaled cameras
The Mohajer-2 can be fitted with three different optical payloads: a) a gimbaled EO-system for surveillance, b) a fixed downward-facing still camera for aerial surveying, and c) a fixed forward-facing camera in the nose for flight. The gimbaled imager is used for real-time surveillance and is limited to light-weight models by the M2's relatively small payload. In practice, only daylight cameras, such as the IEI's Oghab 11, have been fitted. Early-production M2s
lacked the forward-facing camera.
Product brochures also advertise the use of laser line scanners (for wide area aerial surveying), and unspecified electronic-warfare payloads. Neither of these have been documented.
Like the M1, the M2 can also be armed. Documentary footage
fitted with two six-round RPG launchers. However, these have not been documented in service.
Length: 2.91 m
Wingspan: 3.8 m
Weight, Empty: 70 kg
Weight: Payload: 15 kg
Weight, MTOW: 85 kg
Speed, Max: 200 km/h
Ceiling: 3,350 m (11,000 ft)
Range: 50 km
Endurance: 1.5 hours
Powerplant: 25 hp L-275
Length: 2.90 m
Wingspan: 3.82 m
Weight, MTOW: 90 kg
Speed, Max: 180 km/h
Range: 150 km
Endurance: 6 hours
It is assessed with low to moderate confidence that the Raad-85 is a 'suicide' strike variant of the M2, comparable to the similarly equipped Ababil-2 variant. Its designation may be associated with the NEZAJA in particular.
The first reference to the Raad came in 02/2011 when then-DM Vahidi announced the manufacture of an offensive UAV capable of precision strike. 11
Then, in 10/2011, Mashregh News described the Raad as a variant of the Saeqeh target drone (also produced by the Qods Company). 12
Although there was no reason given for this claim, and at first glance appears to be a product of their own open-source research, this possibility cannot be dismissed. The most significant evidence for the Raad's link to the M2 came during the IRGC's Great Prophet 8 exercises in 02/2013, which showed unnamed M2-based UAV being used in the suicide strike role.
|Suicide M2 being prepared for launch during 2013 exercise (IRIB)|
Finally, during a delivery ceremony in September 2013, the NEZAJA announced that they were producing the Raad-85 in cooperation with the Qods Company. 13
At the ceremony, both the M2 and Saeqeh were on display, providing no further clarification.
Specifications for the Raad are elusive. In 09/2013, a NEZAJA commander claimed the Raad had a 100 km range (equivalent to the M2). 14
Then, during a later exercise in 12/2014, another commander said that the Raad had a range of 250 km, suggesting a closer relationship to the M2N than the much shorter ranged M2 or Saeqeh. 15 16
The M2N (the 'N' stands for 'new') was unveiled during the 2014 Kish Airshow. Nearly identical to the M2 in outward appearance, it reportedly enjoys a significant increase in performance. This includes a 200% increase in range (from 50 km to 150 km), and a 300% increase in endurance (from 1.5 hours, to 6 hours). It is also reportedly capable of carrying underwing missile launchers. Although this capability has yet to be documented, it could likely carry any armament in a mode similar to the M2 and M4 variants described elsewhere.
It is unclear how the M2N achieves this increased range and endurance. The most likely explanation would be the addition of fuel tanks in the wings combined with weight reductions elsewhere (to explain the modest 5 kg increase in MTOW).
At the Kish Airshow, a poster showed the M2N fitted with wheeled landing gear even though the accompanying model was shown with the traditional skids.
|M2N at Kish 2014 (military.ir)|
In Iran, the Mohajer-2 is employed by the Army and IRGC for surveillance and attack. However, it is rarely documented in IRGC service – whether on exercise or parade – suggesting the majority are held by the Army. The majority of the Army's M2s have been documented in their ground forces. 17
In NEZAJA service, it is used for both high and low-intensity ISR. For high intensity conflicts, they are organized into or within UAV battalions to provide corps-level reconnaissance. Low intensity service includes routine border surveillance in support of ground operations, much the same way their significant helicopter fleet already operations. They are also used for non-military purposes, such as when the Army is mobilized to perform disaster relief during floods, earthquakes, or snowstorms.
The Raad-85 is expected to enter NEZAJA service in 2015, following its first tests during the Army's 12/2014 exercises. 18
Once it enters service, the Raad will be tasked with long-range strike missions. 19
This positions them alongside the NEZAJA's rocket artillery (e.g. Nazeats and Zelzals), which itself is a national-level force with a similar range (~100-300 km). Additionally, the NEZAJA is the only one of the Army's branches that will operate suicide UAVs, further widening the conceptual gap between the Raad and – for example – the role of the Air Force's PGMs, or the Navy's ASCMs. 20 21
Outside of the army, IRGC-GF was documented using a suicide strike variant during the Great Prophet 8 exercises in 02/2013.
Exports and Foreign Use
Outside of Iran, the Mohajer-2 is operated by the Venezuelan Air Force
, where they are known by their local name 'Arpia' (Harpy)
. They are assigned to the 83rd UAV Squadron, which is part of the 8th ISR Aviation Group based out of the El Libertador Airbase in Maracay. 22
Venezuela's acquisition of M2s began in 2007 when they inked an agreement with Iran that included UAV production. By 2009, the state-owned company CAVIM began assembling them from knock-down kits ships from Iran. 23
They were first unveiled to the public in 06/2012. 24
By 06/2013, CAVIM claimed to have produced 15 of them. 25
Three have reportedly crashed, leaving about a dozen in service. 26
In addition, an unknown number were delivered to a state-owned oil company – PDVSA – for pipeline inspections. 27
|A Venezuelan Arpia up close (FAV Club) |
Beyond Venezuela, there are some reports of the Mohajer-2 being sighted over Syria. However, the available imagery is inconclusive, and the M2 cannot be positively identified.
Mohajer-3 (M3) (Dorna):
The Mohajer-3 was announced alongside the the Mohajer-2 and 4 in 1999, presumably developed during the mid-90s. 28
. It was supposedly designed as the initial attempt to extend the endurance of the M2. 29
It has not entered production, and was soon superseded by the Mohajer-4
The M3 is sometimes refered to as the 'Dorna', a reference to the crane bird.|
The Mohajer-3 is a significant evolution of the Mohajer-2, and is characterized by its larger, squarish fuselage, and a redesigned tail section.
Speed, Cruise: 180 km/h
Range: 100 km
Endurance: 2-3 hours
There is no known operational employment of the Mohajer-3.
Mohajer-4 (M4) (Hodhod / Shahin)
The Mohajer-4 was first referenced in 1999, when it was discussed alongside the M2 and M3. 30
It was documented photographically by at least 2003, possibly earlier. By the mid-2000s, more than 34 M4s had been produced (19 in ~2005, and 15 in ~2006), out of a total of 253 Mohajer-1/2/3/4s around the same time. 31
A new generation of M4 was unveiled in 09/2014, but has yet to supplant the current generation. 32
The M4 is sometimes referred to as the Hodhod, or Shahin. 'Hodhod' is a reference to the crested Hoopoe bird, which resides across Asia, Europe, and Africa, and is present in Persian mythology. 'Shahin' is a translation of 'falcon'. These designations are discussed further below.
The Mohajer-4 continues the evolutionary path of the M2 and M3. Its larger size and aerodynamic refinements reflect its guiding design consideration: increased range and endurance.
Physically, the M4 is characterized by a) its square fuselage, and b) wings with a tapered trailing edge, canted wingtip, and a prominent fairing where they join the lower fuselage. Control surfaces are the same and include an elevator on the horizontal stabilizer, rudders on the vertical stabilizers, and ailerons on the wings.
Although a handful of early examples are powered by different engines, the Mohajer-4 is now uniformly equipped with the 50 hp Limbach L550 four-cylinder two-stroke engine fitted with a pusher prop. The examples equipped with different engines are typically painted in bright colors and lack markings, suggesting they are prototypes belonging to the Qods Company. The first
of these is powered by an unknown 4-cylinder engine fitted with a carburetor superficially similar to that on the WAE-342. The second
is fitted with the 38 hp AR-741 rotary engine. The reasoning behind choosing the L550 is opaque and may be due to specific circumstances such as availability. 33
One can speculate that the L550 – despite weighing more, and burning fuel at twice the rate of the 741 – was chosen foremost for its power, which would allow it to carry more fuel.
The Mohajer-4 is fitted with two antenna, typically arrayed on top of the avionics bay. Although the specifics of the system are unknown, it uses the same three modes found on the M2, which are described above. 34
Since the M4 enjoys a larger payload-capacity, and has more onboard power, it is a reasonable assumption that its functional control range is greater.
The M4 can be fitted with three different optical payloads: a) a fixed forward-facing camera in the nose for navigation, b) a gimbaled EO-system for surveillance, or c) a fixed downward-facing still camera for aerial surveying. The current-generation M4 can carry either the gimbal or survey camera, but not both. In practice, only daylight cameras have been documented in use. However, the next M4 generation (described below) can carry both types simultaneously, and has been shown fitted
with a multi-channel imager. Even if these imagers were fielded immediately, their relative simplicity and lateness in arriving contrasts to the wide use of more sophisticated payloads in the similarly-sized AB3.
In 2014, the MoD revealed that the M4 could be equipped for air-defense with two QW-1 MANPADS. Lacking a dedicated system, these QW-1s would function much as they would on the ground. The operator would aline the tube with the target using onboard cameras, relying on the missile's own IR-seekers to acquire the target. Although its easy to see where this could be useful – for example, against a lone helicopter presenting itself as a target of opportunity – this system has not turned the Mohajer into a dedicated interceptor by any means.
Length: 3.64 m
Wingspan: 5.30 m
Weight, MTOW: 175 kg
Max Speed: 180 km/h
Endurance: 3-5 hours
Ceiling: 4,500 m
Range: 150 km
* Unknown powerplant fitted to associated model.
Specifications (Hodhod A/100*)
Length: 3.74 m
Wingspan: 5.3X m (where x=2, 3, or 4)
Weight, MTOW: 210 kg
Speed: 200 km/h
Endurance: 3 hours
Ceiling: 4,500 m
Range: 150 km
* Shown fitted with rotary engine. See description below.
Hodhod A/1 [A/100]
It is unclear whether the 'Hodhod' designation applies to a specific variant with unique characteristics, or something else. One plausible explanation is that it is name used by the IRGC, while another plausible explanation is that it is an M4-variant with slightly different physical specifications.
Two specific cases have been documented:
, in 09/2010, the designation was applied to a display model fitted with with the AR-741 engine, and painted in a bright red and white paint scheme. The accompanying placard produced by the IRGC included unique specifications that differed from those usually attributed to the M4. Specifically, it claimed that the Hodhod is slightly longer than the M4, has a slightly wider wingspan, has a larger MTOW, and possibly a shorter endurance. Because these differences are inconsistent with the use of the AR-741 in place of the more powerful L550, it is a reasonable working assumption that the 'Hodhod' designation does not refer to a variant powered by this engine. 37
, during a parade in 09/2010, it was applied to two M4s operated by the IRGC. These two were identical to other M4s except for a unique serial format, and – possibly – a new payload bay under the fuselage. Unlike the first case, they were fitted with the L550 and lacked the 'A/1' or 'A/100' suffix in their designation.
Like the Hodhod, it is unclear whether the 'Shahin' designation refers to a specific variant, or is a service-specific designation.
The designation was first applied to a NEZAJA M4 on parade
in 09/2010. By 10/2013, media sources were referring to it as a specific M4 variant, and suggesting – albeit, ambiguously – that it was NEZAJA-specific. 38
This source also noted that the Shahin's MTOW was 230 kg, higher than most descriptions of the M4's MTOW.
However, this claim is difficult to assess because the media may have based this claim entirely on the 09/2010 imagery, potentially creating a circle of erroneous confirmation based on trust in 'official' sources like Fars and Mashregh News. This is exacerbated by the tendency of most major agencies to copy and paste whole sections from preexisting articles. For example, sections from the 10/2013 article were reproduced in reports ostensibly talking about the Shahin's participation in a 12/2014 exercise, creating the illusion of independent confirmation. 39
Sadiq / Mohajer-4B
The Sadiq – or Mohajer-4B 40
– is a significant evolution of the M4 platform that was unveiled during a defense industries exhibition in 08/2014
. No performance information is available.
There is some uncertainty over its designation because they were unveiled alongside two related MoD projects (aerial-survey and air-defense payloads). However, given the payload's parallel use on current generation M4s, it is a reasonable assumption that the M4B is a stand-alone development. It is possible that the 'Sadiq' designation may refer to any M4 equipped with the specific aerial-survey payload.
Physically, the Mohajer-4B can be recognized by:
- New landing skids
- Wings mounted midway on the fuselage; canted wingtips removed; wider span possible.
- Fuselage reshaped for better nose aerodynamics, and improved engine cooling. 41
- Expanded payload bays can now carry gimbaled and downward-facing cameras at the same time.
- Undetermined payload may be associated with new housing on the bottom fuselage.
In Iran, the M4 is employed by the Army and the IRGC for high and low intensity ISR. They are known as the Shahin in the Army's Ground Forces, and appear to be organized similarly to the M2. 42
The Ground Forces have used M4s since at least 2010 and took delivery
of a significant number in Fall 2013, emphasizing their use in border security. In November 2014, one of the M4s documented earlier on parade (SN: A041-112) was downed by the Islamic State
during a surveillance flight over Diyala, Iraq. Notably, this particular UAV included a tail-boom from a different kit
(SN: A041-66), which itself was documented
during the 2013 delivery as part of another mixed kit, illustrating the modular nature of the M4's components.
Although they have not been confirmed in use by the IRIAF, IRIN, or IRIADF, an M4 was shown in the Persian Gulf during 2010's Velayat-89 exercise
, which is typically associated with the Army's air and naval forces.
They are also used for maritime surveillance by the IRGC, who have published videos of their M4s documenting the transit of international warships through the Strait of Hormuz. Among other uses, the IRGC also employs them for internal security in places like Sistan & Baluchistan
alongside the force's own Shahed UAVs.
Exports and Foreign Use
Outside of Iran they have been documented in use over Iraq and Syria, though it is not always clear who is operating them. A handful have been reported in flight over Syria since 2012, but these may be misattributed AB3s, which are far more common. However, an M4B
was shot down over Deir az-Zohr in January 2015 and recovered.
In Iraq, in addition to the Ground Force's M4 described above, at least two more M4s have been lost in action. The first
of these was recovered near the city of Samarra in July 2014, and the second
was recovered near Kirkuk in January 2015. In the second case, the M4 bore no identifying markings, but in the first case carried several Iraqi flag decals.
Appendix: Documented Airframes and Serials:
MX2-009 (IRGC, Great Prophet 8)
A041-65 (09/2013) (NEZAJA)
A041-66 (09/2013) (NEZAJA)
A041-90 (12/2014) (NEZASA)
A041-92 (09/2013) (NEZAJA)
A041-108 (09/2013) (NEZAJA)
A041-111 (09/2013) (NEZAJA)
A041-112 (09/2010, 11/2014) (NEZAJA)
120 (07/2014) (Iraq)
A041-A/B119 (08/2014) (unknown)
A041-A/B201 (01/2015) (Iraq/unknown)
TUAV-M4B-08 (SDW 2010)
P062A-007 (M4B) (Syria/unknown)
Footnotes / Works Cited:
1) There is a handful of imagery, which shows an M1 being recovered by parachute, that appears to be genuine.
2) Image gallery and additional information about the movie available at Soureh Cinema and War is Boring
3) Past and Current UAS Activities in Iran. UAS Yearbook 2009.
4) ibid UAS Yearbook, 2009
5) A Look at the Role of the Mohajer and Tallash in Karbala-5 and Valfajr-8. Mashregh News. 10/11/2011
6) Iran-Iraq War in the Air 1980-1988. Tom Cooper and Farzad Bishop. Schiffer Military History. 2000. p.196, 235
7) The original source for this claim has since been lost, and may only be apocryphal.
8) Cooper and Bishop, 2000. p.196
9) Iran Exhibits Advanced Aircraft and Drones. IRIB. 07/19/1999.
Summary archived at: Iran Missile Chronology. NTI. 08/2011.
10) It is very likely that the M2 appeared in earlier exhibitions, including Kish 2002, but the lack of currently available imagery from these events makes it impossible to confirm at this point.
11) DM: Raad and Nazir are two aircraft with offensive power and maneuverability … [unclear] ISNA. 02/08/2011
12) Saeqeh and Toofan for the Enemies; Sofreh Mahi for Future Generations. Mashregh News. 10/19/2011
13) Production of the Raad-85 Suicide UAV in the Army Ground Forces. YJC. 09/28/2013.
14) Commander: Iranian Ground Force's Drones Make 150 Flights in 1 Year. FNA. 09/28/2013
15) Targeting at 250 km with Suicide UAVs. AJA. 12/2014.
16) It is assumed that two different practices are used when describing the respective ranges of reconnaissance and suicide UAVs. The 250 km one-way range of Raad is close to the M2N's 300 km one-way range, allowing for extra payload weight.
17) It is possible that this documentation is only a reflection of circumstances, and do not reflect the actual distribution of equipment.
18) Suicide UAVs Used for the First Time in the Mohammed Rasoolallah Exercise. AJA. Date Unknown, 12/2012 suspected.
19) NEZAJA's UAV Group's Fleets Ready to Enter Asymmetric Battle Space. AJA. Date unknown, Fall 2013 suspected.
20) Using Suicide UAVs in the Army's Exercise. IRDiplomacy. 12/25/2014
21) Suicide with the Yasir; the NEZAJA's [RQ-7 Shadow]. Tasnim News. 01/06/2015
23) A handful of current and former CAVIM employees with profiles on LinkedIn list work experience relating to the Mohajer beginning in 2009.
24) Venezuela-Iran UAVs. Jeffrey Lewis. Arms Control Wonk. 06/12/2012
26) Iranian Mohajer-2 Drone Appears in Venezuela. Chavez's Building His Own Drone Fleet with the Help of Tehran. The Aviationist. 06/12/2012.
27) ibid CAVIM employees' LinkedIn profiles.
28) ibid IRIB, 1999
29) The Mohajer 3 and 4 [Mark] Iran's Entry Into the Major League of UAVs. Mashregh News. 10/10/2011
30) ibid IRIB, 1999
31) Official production data presented during public expo in mid-2000s. Via MATF
32) Mohajer and Misagh; a Combination That Will Break Any Evil Intentions. Mashregh News. 09/23/2014
33) Around the same time period (late-90s/early-00s), the AB2 was advertised with a rotary engine as well, but has only ever been produced with the two-stroke WAE-342. Only more recently has the rotary AR-741 begun to show up as the standard engine in some of the smaller Shahed-series.
34) The Most Famous Iranian UAV Family Documented Again / Mohajers Looking for Air Targets. FNA. 09/23/2014.
35) MATF, SDW 2011
36) Mohammed Hussein, SDW 2010. HT @ AminCo at IMF
37) Although, as a general rule, 2-stroke engines consume less fuel and are offer less power for their size and weight than rotary engines, the L550's greater power (50 hp vs 38 hp) flips these characteristics. This means that one would expect to see this 'Hodhod' (which is fitted with the 38 hp AR-741) have a lower MTOW, and longer endurance.
38) The Heavy Shadow of the “Shahin” on the Borders / Eyes that See Blind Spots. FNA. 10/19/2013.
39) Shahin Flight; Heaviest NEZAJA UAV in the Big Army Exercise. FNA. 12/25/2014
40) The notional designation is based off a) the explicit labeling of this UAV as a “Mohajer-4”, combined with b) the unique characteristics distinguishing it from current-generation M4s. The specific origin of the “-4B” designation is a poster displayed in the mid-2000s showing the progress of various projects being undertaken by the Qods Company. One such project was the Mohajer-4B, whose development was reportedly 95% complete.
41) ibid Mashregh News, 09/23/2014
42) ibid FNA, 10/19/2013